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10 March 2011

The history of computers has been started since time immemorial. Since ancient times, the data processing has been done by humans. Humans also find the tools of mechanics and electronics to help human beings in the calculation and data processing in order to get results faster. Computers that we meet today is a long evolution of human inventions since time immemorial in the form of mechanical or electronic devices
Today computers and supporting devices have been included in every aspect of life and work. Computers that exist now have a greater ability than ordinary mathematical calculations. Among them is a computer system at the kassa supermarket shopping goods is able to read the code, telephone exchange that handles millions of calls and communications, computer networks and the Internet that connects various places in the world.

History of Computers by periods is:
* Tools and Calculators Calculate Traditional Mechanical
* First Generation Computers
* Second Generation Computers
* Third Generation Computers
* Fourth Generation Computers
* Fifth Generation Computer

TRADITIONAL TOOLS CALCULATE and CALCULATOR MEKANIKAbacus, which emerged about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still used in some places up to now can be regarded as the beginning of this komputasi.Alat engine allows users to perform calculations using sliding grains arranged in a rack. The merchants in those days using the abacus to calculate the trade transaction. Along with the emergence of a pencil and paper, especially in Europe, the abacus lost its popularity

After almost 12 centuries, another finding emerged in terms of computing machines. In 1642, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who at that time was 18 years old, found what he called a numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator) to help his father make tax calculations

This brass rectangular box called the Pascaline, used eight toothed wheel to add numbers to eight digits. This tool is a calculator tool based on number ten. The weakness of this tool is only limited to the sum

Year 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfred Wilhem von Leibniz (1646-1716) to improve Pascaline by creating a machine that can multiply. Just like its predecessor, this mechanical device works by using the wheels serrations. By studying the notes and drawings made by Pascal, Leibniz can refine tools.

It was only in 1820, mechanical calculators became popular. Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar find a machine that can perform four basic arithmetic functions. Colmar mechanical calculator, arithometer, presenting a more practical approach in the calculation because the tool can perform summation, subtraction, multiplication, and division. With his ability, arithometer widely used until World War I. Together with Pascal and Leibniz, Colmar helped build a mechanical computing era.

Beginning of the computer that actually created by a British mathematics professor, Charles Babbage (1791-1871). 1812, Babbage noticed natural fit between the mechanical and mathematical machinery of mechanical machines is very good at doing the same tasks repeatedly without mistake; being a simple repetition of mathematics requires a tertenu steps. These problems Kemudain grown to placing the machine mechanics as a tool to answer the needs of mechanics. Babbage's first effort to address this problem emerged in 1822 when he proposed a machine to melakukanperhitungan differential equations. The machine is called Differential Engine. By using steam power, the machine can store programs and can perform calculations and print the results automatically.

After working with Differential Engine for ten years, Babbage was suddenly inspired to start making general-purpose computer first, called the Analytical Engine. Babbage's assistant, Augusta Ada King (1815-1842) has an important role in making this machine. He helped revise the plan, seek funding from the British government, and communicate the specifications of the Analytical Engine to the public. In addition, a good understanding of Augusta on this machine makes it possible to put instructions into the machine and also make it the first female programmer. In 1980, the U.S. Defense Department named a programming language with the name of the ADA as a tribute to him.

Babbage's steam engine, although never completed, it seems very primitive compared to today's standards. However, these tools describe the basic elements of a modern computer and also reveals an important concept. Consisting of about 50,000 components, the basic design of the Analytical Engine using perforated cards (with holes) that contains the operating instructions for the machine.

In 1889, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) also applies the principle of perforated cards to perform calculations. His first task is to find a faster way to perform calculations for the United States Census Bureau. Previous census conducted in 1880, took seven years to complete the calculations. With growing population, the Bureau estimates that it takes ten years to complete the census calculations.

Hollerith used perforated cards to enter census data which is then processed by the tool mechanically. A card can store up to 80 variables. By using these tools, the results of the census can be completed within six weeks. Besides having the advantage in speed, the card serves as a data storage media. The error rate calculation can also be reduced drastically. Hollerith later develop these tools and sell them to the public. He founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 which later became International Business Machine (1924) after some time the merger. Other companies such as Remington Rand and Burroghs also manufacture perforated card reader for a business. Perforated cards used by businesses to permrosesan data dn government until 1960.

In the next period, several engineers made other new discoveries. Vannevar Bush (18901974) created a calculator to solve differential equations in 1931. The machine could solve complex differential equations that have been considered complicated by academics. The machine was very large and heavy as hundreds of serrations and the shaft is required to perform calculations. In 1903, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry tried to make a computer that applied Boolean algebra electric on electric circuits. This approach is based on the work of George Boole (1815-1864) in the form of a binary system of algebra, which states that any mathematical equation can be expressed as true or false. By applying the conditions are right and wrong into the electrical circuit in the form of connect-off, Atanasoff and Berry made the first electric computer in 1940. But those projects stalled due to loss of funding sources.

With the onset of the Second World War, the countries involved in the war sought to develop computers to exploit their potential strategic importance computer. This increased funding to accelerate the progress of the development of computer and computer engineering. In 1941, Konrad Zuse, a German engineer to build a computer Z3, to design airplanes and missiles.

Party allies also made other progress in the development of computer power. In 1943, the British completed the secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to decode German-secret used. The Colossus's impact influenced the development of the computer industry because of two reasons. First, Colossus was not a multi-purpose computer general-purpose computer), it is only designed to decode secret messages. Second, the existence of these machines kept confidential until a decade after the war ended.

Work done by the Americans at that time produced some other advancement. Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), a Harvard engineer working with IBM, succeeded in producing electronic calculators for the U.S. Navy. The calculator is a length of half a football field and has a range of 500 miles of cable. The Harvd-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I, an electronic relay computer. He uses electromagnetic signals to move the mechanical components. The machine beropreasi with slow (it takes 3-5 seconds for each calculation) and inflexible (the order of calculations can not be changed). The calculator can perform basic arithmetic calculations and equations are more complex.

Another computer development during this period was the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), generated by the cooperation between the governments of the United States and the University of Pennsylvania. Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer is a machine that consumes huge power of 160kW. This computer was designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC is a versatile computer (general purpose computer) that work 1000 times faster than the Mark I. In the mid-1940s, John von Neumann (1903-1957) joined the team of University of Pennsylvania in Usha building concept couples the computer that the next 40 years is still used in computer engineering.

Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a memory to accommodate both programs or data. This technique allows the computer to stop at some point and then resume her job back. The key factor von Neumann architecture is the central processing unit (CPU), which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source. In 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) made by Remington Rand, became the first commercial computer that uses the von Neumann architecture model. Both the United States Census Bureau and General Electric have UNIVAC. One of the impressive results achieved by the UNIVAC dalah success in predicting victory Dwilight D. Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election.

First generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions are made specifically for a particular task. Each computer has a program different binary-coded-called "machine language" (machine language). This causes the computer is difficult to be programmed and the speed limit. Another feature is the use of first generation computer vacuum tube (which makes the computer at that time are very large) and magnetic cylinders for the storage of data.

In 1948, the invention of the transistor greatly influenced the development of a computer. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in televisions, radios, and computers. As a result, the size of electronic machinery has reduced drastically. The transistor was used in computers began in 1956. In other findings in the form of magnetic core memory-assisting the development of second generation computers smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than their predecessors. The first machine that utilizes this new technology is a supercomputer. IBM makes supercomputers, Stretch and Sprery-Rand makes a computer named LARC. These computers, which was developed for atomic energy laboratories, could handle large amounts of data, a capability that is needed by researchers atoms. The machine was very expensive and tend to be too complex for business computing needs, thereby limiting its popularity. There are only two LARC has ever installed and used: one at the Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and the other in the U.S. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington DC Second generation computers replaced machine language with assembly language. Assembly language is a language that uses abbreviations to replace the binary code.

In the early 1960s, began to appear successful second generation computers in business, in universities and in government. The computers of this second generation is fully computer using transistors. They also have components that can be associated with the computer at this time: a printer, storage, disk, memory, operating system and programs. One important example is the computer on the IBM 1401 which is widely accepted in the industry. In 1965, nearly all big businesses use computers to process the second generation of financial information.

The program stored in the computer and programming language that is in it gives flexibility to the computer. Flexibility is increased performance at a reasonable price for business use. With this concept, the computer could print customer purchase invoices and then run a product design or calculate payroll. Some programming languages ​​began to appear at that time. Programming language Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) came into common use. This programming language replaces the complicated machine with the words, sentences, and mathematical formulas are more easily understood by humans. This allows a person to program and manage the computer. Various New types of careers (programmer, analyst, and expert computer systems). Software industry also began to emerge and grow during this second-generation computer.

Although the transistors in many respects the vacuum tube, but transistors generate considerable heat, which can potentially damage the computer's internal parts. Quartz stone (quartz rock) to eliminate this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combined three electronic components in a small silicon disc made of quartz sand. Scientists later managed to fit more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. As a result, computers became ever smaller as the components can be squeezed onto the chip. Other third-generation development is the use of the operating system (operating system) that allows the engine to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory.

After IC, the goal of development becomes more obvious that shrink the size of circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) could fit hundreds of components on a chip. In the 1980's, the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) contains thousands of components on a chip tunggal.Ultra-large scale integration (ULSI) increased that number into the millions. Ability to install so many components in a half-sized pieces of metal coins helped diminish the size and price of the computer. It also increased power, efficiency and reliability of the computer. Intel 4004 chip that was made in 1971 to bring progress to the IC by putting all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and control input / output) in a small boiling chip. Previously, the IC is made to do a certain task specific. Now, a microprocessor can be manufactured and then programmed to meet all the requirements. Not long after, everyday household items like microwave ovens, televisions, and automobiles with electronic fuel injection equipped with microprocessors.

Such developments allow ordinary people to use a regular computer. Computers no longer a dominance of large companies or government agencies. In the mid-1970s, computer assemblers offer their computer products to the general public. These computers, called minicomputers, sold with a software package that is easy to use by the layman. The most popular software at the time was word processing and spreadsheet programs. In the early 1980s, such as the Atari 2600 video game consumer interest in home computers are more sophisticated and can diprogram.Pada 1981, IBM introduced the use of Personal Computer (PC) for use in homes, offices, and schools. The number of PCs that use jumped from 2 million units in 1981 to 5.5 million units in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs in use. Computers continued evolution towards smaller size, of computers that are on the table (desktop computer) into a computer that can be inserted into the bag (laptop), or even a computer that can be held (palmtop).

IBM PC to compete with Apple's Macintosh in getting the computer market. Apple Macintosh became famous for popularizing the graphical system on his computer, while his rival was still using a text-based computer. Macintosh also popularized the use of mouse devices.

At the present time, we know the journey IBM compatible with CPU usage: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (series of CPUs made by Intel). Also we know AMD K6, Athlon, etc.. This is all included in the class of fourth-generation computers. Along with the proliferation of computer usage in the workplace, new ways to explore the potential of being developed. Along with the increased strength of a small computer, these computers can be connected together in a network to share a memory, software, information, and also to be able to communicate with each other. Computer networks allow computers to form a single electronic cooperation to complete a process task. By using direct wiring (also known as local area network, LAN), or telephone wires, these networks can develop into very large.

Defining a fifth-generation computer becomes quite difficult because this stage is still very young. An example is the fifth generation computer imaginative fictional HAL9000 computer from the novel by Arthur C. Clarke titled 2001: Space Odyssey. HAL displays all the desired function from a fifth-generation computer. With artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence), the HAL may have enough reason to do percapakan with humans, using visual feedback, and learn from his own experience.

Although it may be the realization of HAL9000 is still far from reality, many of the functions that had been established. Some kompute r can receive verbal instructions and are capable of imitating human reasoning. The ability to translate a foreign language also becomes possible. This facility looks sederhan. However, such facilities become much more complicated than expected when programmers realized that human understanding relies heavily on context and understanding rather than just translate the words directly.

Many advances in the field of computer design and technology increasingly allows the manufacture of fifth generation computers. Two engineering advances which are mainly parallel processing capability, which will replace the von Neumann model. Von Neumann model will be replaced with a system capable of coordinating multiple CPUs to work in unison. Another advancement is the superconducting technology that permit the flow of electrically without any obstacles, which in turn can accelerate the speed of information.

Japan is a country known in the jargon of socialization and the fifth generation computer project. Institutions ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) was also formed to make it happen. Many newspapers stating that this project has failed, but some other information that the success of this fifth generation computer project will bring new changes to the paradigm of computerization in the world. We are waiting for which information is more valid and fruitful.

With computer technology available today, rather difficult to imagine how future computer. With the technology available today we seemed to have to "hold the world". In terms of technology, some computer scientists believe that one day create the so-called biochip that is made from materials sitetis protein. Robot made ​​with this material will become human clone. While the technology currently in research stages right now of micro optic and audio input-output may be used by tomorrow's computers. Experts in computer science right now is trying to design a computer that does not require the writing and making of the program by the user. Computer without the program (programless computer) may form a major feature of computer generations to come.
Possible Future Computers

Kemungkinan Komputer Masa Depan
Possible Future Computers

In principle, the characteristics of future computers are more sophisticated and cheaper and has the ability to include seeing, hearing, speaking, and thinking and able to make conclusions such as humans. This means the computer has an approach of artificial intelligence capabilities and human behavior. Another plus again, the intelligence to predict an event that will happen, able to communicate directly with humans, and its getting smaller. What is clear is the future of computers will be more amazing.
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